We tested acute toxicity in worms Eisenia andrei following OCDE protocols ( ) and bioactivity tests in Artemia salina. The alkaloids fraction. Bioensayo de toxicidad en artemia salina. Cortés Montoya Vanessa Hernández Castañeda Miriam Najera Sánchez Gloria Guadalupe Ramírez Venegas María. Bioensayo de La Toxicidad Del Nitrato de Potasio en Reproductores de Artemia Salina en Condiciones de Laboratorio – Download as Word Doc .doc), PDF.

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Evaluation of marine phytoplankton toxicity by application of marine invertebrate bioassays. The dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum and the haptophyte Prymnesium parvum are well known for their toxin production and negative effects in marine coastal environments. The aim of this work is to improve our knowledge about the reliability of the use of marine invertebrate bioassays to detect microalgae toxicity, by performing: The results indicate that A.

LC 50 comparison analysis between the tested organisms reveals that A. These findings suggest that the use of different organizational biological level bioassays appears to be a suitable tool for A. Alexandrium minutum ; Prymnesium parvum ; Paracentrotus lividus ; Artemia franciscana ; Corophium multisetosum ; toxicity bioassays.

Las toxinas de P. Los resultados muestran que las aetemia de A. Alexandrium minutum ; Prymnesium parvum ; Paracentrotus lividus ; Artemia franciscana ; Corophium multisetosum ; bioensayos artsmia toxicidad. Toxic blooms cause negative impacts and economic losses in many parts of the world and their consequences and mechanisms depend on the species involved.

Broadly, there toxicidar four categories of deleterious effects: Biooensayo look at habitat changes. Nova Science Publishers Inc.

The globally distributed genus Alexandrium: Bkoensayo taxonomic groups of microalgae are known as harmful marine species: Among the genera responsible for harmful algal blooms HABsbioensayp genus Alexandrium is one of the most important, in terms of severity, diversity and distribution of bloom impacts Anderson et al. Alexandrium minutum Halim is well known for the production of paralytic shellfish poisoning toxins and its presence can affect copepods, shellfish, and other marine organisms Zhenxing et al.

Effects of toxic Alexandrium species on the survival and feeding rates of brine shrimp, Artemia salina. Alexandrium minutumn. Toxin profiles of natural populations and cultures of Alexandrium minutum Halim toxicicad Galician Spain coastal waters. Short-term and long-term effects of the toxic dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum on the copepod Acartia clausi. Comparative study of the life cycles of Alexandrium tamatum and Alexandrium minutum Gonyaulacales, Dinophyceae in culture.

Phylogenetic relationships among the Mediterranean Alexandrium Dinophyceae species based on sequences of 5. The haptophyte alga Prymnesium parvum N. This organism produces a set of highly potent exotoxins, commonly called prymensins, that have been shown to have several biological effects, including ichthyotoxic, neurotoxic, cytotoxic, hepatotoxic and hemolytic activity towards a range of marine organisms Igarashi et al.

New or interesting algae from brackish water. Ecology of Harmful Algae. Because of these deleterious effects, several methods for determining the toxicity of marine microalgae have been used to date. The most common is the mouse bioassay developed by the Japanese Ministry of Health and Welfare Yasumoto et al.

Occurrence of a new type of shellfish poisoning in the Tohoku district. This method is characterized by being accurate and of short-term response, but the controversy in the use of mammals for bioassays has led to the search for and practice of new alternative bioassays FAO FAO Roma, Italy, pp.

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In this research field, phytoplankton toxicity has been tested in marine organisms, including fish and invertebrates; the tests include mortality tests with crustaceans of the genus Artemia Houdan et al. Toxicity of coastal coccolithophores Prymnesiophyceae, Haptophyta. Toxic effects of harmful benthic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis ovata on invertebrate and vertebrate marine organisms. Moreover, toxicity of extracts from different diatoms has been evaluated in sea urchin embryos Buttino et al.


Water-soluble extracts of the diatom Thalassiosira rotula induce aberrations in embryonic tubulin organisation of the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus. Anti-mitotic activity towards sea urchin embryos in extracts from the marine haptophycean Phaeocystis pouchetii Hariot Lagerheim collected along the coast of northern Norway.

Increase in the production of allelopathic substances by Prymnesium parvum cells grown under N- or P-deficient conditions. Experimental study of harmful algae-zooplankton interactions and the ultimate grazing defense.

Due to the high toxicity reported for A.

In addition, the involvement of the genus Prymnesium in fish mortalities makes its toxicity evaluation important in order to ensure the good quality of areas with fish aquaculture and shellfish exploitation.

Toxicity may be variable between strains of potentially toxic species e. Variety of PSP toxin profiles in various culture strains of Alexandrium tamarense and change of toxin profile in natural A. Toxin variability in cultured and natural populations of Alexandrium tamarense from southern South America — Evidences of diversity and environmental regulation.

Intraregional variation among Alexandrium catenella Dinophyceae strains from southern Chile: Goxicidad, toxicological and genetic diversity. It is therefore necessary to evaluate the toxicity of local strains of known potentially toxic species, such as Alexandrium minutum and Prymnesium parvum. In the present study, bioassays with three different marine invertebrates with different levels of biological organization were applied as a detection tool to assess the toxic capacity of these marine microalgae species.

A set of ecotoxicological tests was carried out to investigate the effects of A. Its life cycle begins with the hatching of dormant cysts that, once rehydrated in salt water, start the development as nauplii larvae, which are the material for the bioassays. These crustaceans are characterized by their adaptability ej a wide range of salinity and temperature conditions: They are also non-selective filter feeders sensitive to toxic substances Sarabia Sarabia R. Argemia thesis, Toxicidd of Valencia, pp.

PhD thesis, University of Vigo, pp. Toxic effects of Ostreopsis ovata on larvae and juveniles of Paracentrotus lividus. Protocolo del test de toxicidad de sedimentos marinos con larvas del erizo de mar Paracentrotus lividus Lamarck, Moreover, obtaining gametes and in vitro fecundation do not involve difficulties, while the embryonic development is short, thus allowing viable larvae to be obtained in a short time Garmendia et al.

Method for assessing the chronic toxicity of marine and estuarine sediment-associated contaminants with the amphipod Leptocheirus plumulosus. Protocols on methods for the testing of chemicals used in the offshore oil industry.

The bioassays were applied with the aim of i evaluating the sensitivity of the abovementioned species to the toxicity of A. For strain isolation, a single cell was captured with a glass capillary under an inverted microscope Nikon Diaphot TMD. Before being inoculated into the culture plate, the cell was transferred to a sterile culture medium drop and captured again, to eliminate possible contaminants.

For the taxonomic identification, cells were stained with calcofluor 0.

A, Alexandrium minutum x and Prymnesium parvum y ; B, sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus ; C, amphipod Corophium multisetosum. In order to obtain unialgal cultures, serial dilution cultures were made from the field sample. Taxonomic identification was performed through cellular scale characterization, using transmission electron microscopy Seoane et al.

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Studies of marine planktonic diatoms. Cyclotella nana Hustedt, and Detonula confervacea Cleve Gran. To obtain the growth curve, fluorescence was measured daily with a Turner Designs R fluorometer as a proxy of cell density. toxlcidad

Toxicity tests were performed with both cultures A. Before being used for toxicological testing, the cell density was determined with a Neubauer chamber. Cultures were diluted with marine filtered water 0. Specimens were transported alive in a container with seawater and processed immediately in the laboratory. Artemia franciscana tests were performed following the standard operational procedure Artoxkit Artoxkit M.

Artemia toxicity screening test for estuarine and marine waters. Standard operational bioenszyo, Creasel, Deinze, Belgium. After that time, all larvae had moulted to instar II-III stages and the hatched nauplii were separated from remaining cysts using a Pasteur pipette.

Artemia salina Research Papers –

Six hundred specimens of C. The ecotoxicological tests were performed using different cell concentrations and two treatments: The bioassays were performed on II-III stage nauplii larvae of Artemia franciscanaon newly-fertilized sea urchin embryos Paracentrotus lividusand on adults of the amphipod Corophium multisetosum. In order to define the accurate microalgae concentration range of Alexandrium minutum and Prymnesium parvum for the bioassay with P. The mortality observed in this initial experiment helped us to define a more precise concentration range se a definitive test see Table 1 for concentration ranges.

The procedure followed in this study to carry out the Paracentrotus lividus embryo-larval bioassay, was taken from the protocol of Garmendia et al. After equatorial dissection on the sea urchins Fig. A, equatorial dissection of the sea urchin before fertilization; B, qrtemia with the fertilization membrane after fertilization; C, sea urchin larva completely developed with the four arms correctly separate; D, poorly developed sea urchin larva resulting after exposure to toxic sample.

The bioassay was based on the exposure of the newly-fertilized eggs to different concentrations of cultured and biosnsayo microalgae for 48 hours Table 1.

After fertilization, approximately eggs were transferred to propylene glasses 6 replicates for each algae concentration and 11 for the control, following Garmendia et al. Comparison of methods to obtain a liquid phase in marine sediment toxicity bioassays with Paracentrotus lividus sea urchin embryos. After incubation, one replicate per treatment was used to measure oxygen, salinity and temperature in order to ensure normal optimal conditions.

Artemia salina

Embryonic success was estimated by counting the normal pluteus larvae among the first larvae observed. Larvae were considered normal when the four arms were correctly formed Garmendia et al. On the other hand, larvae were considered non-well-developed when no four arms were formed Fig. The toxicity tests were performed in well polystyrene multiwell plates containing 1 mL of different cell concentrations Toxiciead 1. Marine standard water was used as a control and I.

Larvae were considered dead when no movement was detected after 10 seconds of observation and semi-dead when the movement had decreased compared with the non-affected larvae. Dead larvae were observed under the microscope in order to determine the presence or absence of algae cells inside the digestive system. The experiment was based on the exposure of adult amphipods to different concentrations of A.