16 set. Com base nas obras A teoria da democracia revisitada – o debate contemporâneo (Giovanni Sartori), Poliarquia: Participação e Oposição. 24 set. Uma teoria da democracia como processo decisório. Democracia governada e democracia governante. Decisões políticas; Riscos externos. From a contemporary point of view, within political science, reference may be made to the work of Giovanni Sartori, A Teoria da Democracia Revisitada, trans.

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Realismo e utopia em Robert Michels. Realism and utopia in Robert Michels. This article discusses what the major influences on Robert Michels were in writing his book, Political Parties.

Although Michels was not concerned with providing clear definitions of his major theoretical concepts, I attempt to reveal the essence of his reasoning, presenting the major conceptions and influences in this book and emphasizing the changes that were made from the first edition in to the second, in For these purposes, I study the explanatory notes appearing in this second edition in addition to the main text that are revealing of the author’s reasoning as well as his theoretical and empirical sources.

In addition to discussing the sources that inspired the book, I also provide a genetic analysis of the work, considering some biographical information on the period prior to xemocracia book’s publication and the interval between the two editions. I look at other things Michel wrote in order to get a grasp on how his thought was transformed. Finally, I point to both fragilities and contributions of his work and argue that the key to understanding his life and work resides in capturing the tense disjunctions he establishes between democradia and utopia, and separating Michels the militant from Michels revisitaad political analyst.


Robert Q partis politiques; loi de fer de l’oligarchie; organisation; biographie.

Em seguida, destaca-se o Michels realista, que aponta os limites da democracia liberal, do socialismo, do sindicalismo e do anarquismo, todos fadados a se transformarem em oligarquias. Nessa democracia representativa ideal, os governados controlam os governantes: Recorrendo muitas vezes ao Manifesto do Partido ComunistaMichelsp. Nesse sentido, Michels idemp.

Para Michelsp.

A Teoria Da Democracia Revisitada – Giovanni Sartori – Google Books

Para Michels idemp. Em artigo posterior, Michelsp. From this results the adoption of the consensual theory which rests more than upon the popular vote upon a public opinion mensurable less by the liberty of the press than by the number of adherents and political and economico-social organizations.

Nos momentos marxistas de SociologiaMichelsp. Va entanto, Michelsp. Trata-se, basicamente, de duas ordens de fatores.

Voltando suas baterias aos mesmos autores em que se apoia para criticar a democracia liberal Sorel, Bakunin, Lagardelle etc. Michels idemp. Como sublinha Panebiancop. Como argumenta Linzp.

Nesse sentido, Sartorip. Os argumentos sobre liberdade, ca e iniciativa individuais, esgrimidos por Michelsp.


Em dado ponto do livro, Michels idemp. Qual vontade eles deveriam expressar?

As elites e a sociedade. The Law of Oligarchy.

Robert Michels’ Political Parties in Perspective. A Critique of the Ruling Elite Model. The Iron Law of What Again? Conceptualizing Oligarchy Across Organizational Forms. Sociological TheoryMalden, v. Michels’ Theory of Political Parties. Le syndicalisme et le socialisme en Allemagne.

Democracy, Accountability, and Representation. A lei de ferro da oligarquia: The Social Democrats in Imperial Germany: Democrazia, burocrazia e oligarchia nei partiti. Rassegna Italiana di Sociologiav. A teoria da democracia revisitada: An Approach to a Theory of Bureaucracy.

American Sociological ReviewChicago, v.

O que foi escrito sobre democracia

I dilemmi della democrazia moderna: Max Weber e Robert Michels. Recebido em 30 de agosto de No Brasil, ver SartiCouto e Ribeiro Eine politische Beschreibung A democracia moderna. Studi storici e sociali Roma: Democtacia, e Questioni pratiche di diritto costituzionale Turim, Segundo Teixeira idemp. All the contents of this journal, except where otherwise noted, is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License.

Services on Demand Journal. How to cite this article.